XI.    Early European Contacts with China
        A.      Arrival of the Europeans
        B.      Role of Missionaries
        C.      Rites Controversy
  
     D.      Introduction of Western Science and Technology
  
     E.      Sino-Russian Relation

Terms

Marco Polo
Prince Henry the Navigator
Bartholomeo Dias
Tome Pires
Macao
Canton
Koxinga
Fujian province (Fukien)
Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
St. Francis Xavier
Mateo Ricci
Zhongguo (
Middle Kingdom)
The Ministry of Rites
Kangxi (K’ang Hsi)
Adam Schall von Bell
Michele Ruggieri
Concept of Tian (Heaven)
Kowtow (bowing)
The Rites Controversy
Dominicans
Franciscans
Pope Clement XI
Carlo Tommaso Maillard de Tournon
Wu Sangui (Wu San-kuei)
Koxinga
Albazin
Russian Cossacks
Nerchinsk
Peter the Great
Treaty of Nerchinsk 1689
Treaty of Kiakta in 1727
George McCartney
Grenada
Madras
Co-hong merchants
Tianjin (Tiensin)
Qianlong (Ch’ien lung)
King George III
kowtow
Heshen (Ho-shen)